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Mikhail Krasnyansky, PhD, retired professor (USA)

Producing of Electrical Power from Environmental Heat and the Struggle with Hurricanes through the Giant Heat-Pumps

Abstract


It is suggested to produce electrical power by way of utilization of so-called "secondary" solar energy (i.e. .to pump out it from the environment) with help of the giant heat-pumps, and also to struggle against hurricanes with help the same giant heat-pumps.

Keywords: secondary solar energy, heat-pump, hurricanes.

Introduction


Unfortunately, the human civilization stepped on a dangerous way of energy production by incinerating of fossil fuel (coal, gas, oil). That is why, firstly, the natural deposits of accessible hydrocarbons become exhausted; secondly, toxic combustion gases and dust pollute the environment; thirdly, the negative change of the climate takes place. Today world financial expenses of customers for payment of energy resources are about six trillion dollars per year - it is 10% of the world GDP.

Energy production from environmental heat

Now many countries have begun realization of large programs in area of renewable among which the Sun takes the "foremost place". However, I would like to pay attention to the fact that the nature has created other grandiose thermal energy source for mankind - it is so-called "secondary" solar energy (i.e. utilization of heat of the upper layers of oceans, seas, rivers, and also ground or the lower layer of the atmosphere). This "secondary" solar energy can be utilized with the help of large heat- pumps and Stirling-engines (it is engine of external combustion).

If to combine in a united cycle a heat-pump, the Stirling-engine and heat-exchanger (Fig. 1, 2) - we shall have so-called "non-fuel power station" (NFPS), where transformation of heat into useful mechanical work will occur with efficiency up to 80% (Fig. 3).

The scheme of a “non-fuel” power station (NFPS)Fig. 1. The scheme of a “non-fuel” power station (NFPS):

1 – condenser; 2 – compressing of morehot gasiform-ammonia (+80 oC); 3 – more hot water (+70 oC); 4 – heat-exchanger, combined with the Stirling-engine and the electric-generator; 5 – less hot water (+30 oC); 6 –compressor; 7 – compressing of the less hot gasiform –ammonia (+30 oC); 8 – choke; 9 – fluid-ammonia ( -40 oC); 10 – evaporator; 11 – less cold water (+ 10 oC) from river; 12 – more cold water (+ 5 oC) into river.

Fig. 2 - Position 4 of the Fig. 1 (in detail)Fig. 2 - Position 4 of the Fig. 1 (in detail):

1 -external combustion chamber of the Stirling-engine (it is engine of external combustion); 2 – heat-exchanger of the NFPS; 3 – shaft of the Stirling-engine; 4 - generator of an electric current; 5 – electric current for consumers.

Fig. 3. Heat-pump efficiencyFig. 3. Heat-pump efficiency:

1 -energy spent for work of the heat-pump; 2 - energy received from work of a NFPS.

The heat pumpworks like a "refrigerator in reverse" - the interior heats up, and the environment (a section of a river, ground or surrounding atmosphere) cools.The heat carrier here is liquid ammonia (-40 ° C). Therefore, if a coil with liquid ammonia is immersed in a river (lake) or buried in the ground, then even in winter at (-5 ° C), this water or ground will be "hot" for liquid ammonia, and it evaporate and will perform work, and water (ground) around the coil - will be cooled. In this case, the NFPS system produces much more energy than it consumes for the operation of the heat pump.

Herewith:


a) Using of fossil fuel will be decreased;
b) The negative change of a climate will be decreased;
c) Pollution of the environment by toxic smokes and dust will be decreased;
d) In addition, during a work of such NFPS take place a condensation of a water vapor from air; for example, the big NFPS (1000 Megawatt) will manufacture about one million tons of the pure (condensed) water per year, that there is enough for all needs of small city about of 30 thousand people.

In fact, the using of the NFPS is a unique way for struggle with the "global warming" because it will pump out superfluous heat from environment. However it should be understood that the question is about the GIANT heat pumps and GIANT thermodynamic cycles.

The straggle with hurricanes

However, such giant heat pumps can be used to solve another extremely important problem - straggle with hurricanes. For example, only during 2017-2018, the horrific hurricanes in the USA destroyed about 100,000 houses, killed about 80 people and brought damage about $200 billion. Fig. 4 shows the birth and formation of a hurricane.It can be assumed that ifwe place NFPS-system cooling coils (these will be giant coils from gigantic heat pumps!) at the point of the "eyes" (Fig. 4), we can hope to stop (or at least reduce) the development of the hurricane or cyclone.

Fig. 4. The birth and formation of a hurricaneFig. 4. The birth and formation of a hurricane

The NFPS with the capacity of 1000 MW will cool off the volume of ocean water in the square of approximately 10x5 km and up to 50 m downwards for 10-20 degrees C. If to imagine that such NFPS are installed on marine platforms in the Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbeansea (near identified hurricane's sites) - these hurricanes getting in the "cold square" of NFPS will lose a considerable part of its destructive force.